30 Des 2016

Anda Pemimpin? Hindari Jebakan Kepemimpinan Ini

Sebuah penelitian dari Harvard Business Review mengatakan bahwa dua dari lima pemimpin gagal dalam menjalankan tugasnya sebelum 18 bulan memimpin. Sementara itu, sepertiga dari pimpinan eksekutif tidak bertahan hingga lebih dari tiga tahun.

Goal perusahaan akan tercapai dengan kolaborasi yang solid antara pemimpin dengan anggota tim. Jika komitmen anggota tim tidak ada, pemimpin akan kesulitan menjalankan peranannya.

Berikut adalah beberapa jebakan yang harus dihindari oleh pemimpin agar tidak mematikan kolaborasi anggota tim.

25 Tips to Hyper Motivate and Inspire Your Team

Implement these 25 tips in your leadership strategy to find motivated and much more productive employees


You can begin by reviewing and implementing these 25 tips in your leadership strategy.

1. Listen

Christine Riordan, a leadership coach and president-elect of Adelphi University, tells the Harvard Business Review; "To be able to motivate and inspire others, you need to learn how to listen in both individual meetings and at the group level."

29 Des 2016

Pelatihan Anti Pencucian Uang (APU) & Pencegahan Pendanaan Terorisme (PPT)

Kami membuka acara Pelatihan Anti Pencucian Uang (APU) & Pencegahan Pendanaan Terorisme (PPT) IBF di INTA Institute, Rabu 28 Desember 2016.




28 Des 2016

Forum State Ownership Enterprise Transformation: Toward A True World Class

Menghadiri Forum State Ownership Enterprise Transformation: Toward A True World Class bersama seluruh direksi BUMN di Hotel Intercontinental Mid Plaza, Jakarta (Kamis, 22 Desember 2016)




Overcoming Procrastination - Manage Your Time. Get It All Done.


If you’ve found yourself putting off important tasks over and over again, you’re not alone. In fact, many people procrastinate to some degree – but some are so chronically affected by procrastination that it stops them fulfilling their potential and disrupts their careers.
The key to controlling this destructive habit is to recognize when you start procrastinating, understand why it happens (even to the best of us), and take active steps to manage your time and outcomes better.

Personal Goal Setting - Planning to Live Your Life Your Way

 

How to Set a Goal
First consider what you want to achieve, and then commit to it. Set SMART (specific, measureable, attainable, relevant and time-bound) goals that motivate you and write them down to make them feel tangible. Then plan the steps you must take to realize your goal, and cross off each one as you work through them.


Many people feel as if they're adrift in the world. They work hard, but they don't seem to get anywhere worthwhile.
A key reason that they feel this way is that they haven't spent enough time thinking about what they want from life, and haven't set themselves formal goals. After all, would you set out on a major journey with no real idea of your destination? Probably not!
Goal setting is a powerful process for thinking about your ideal future, and for motivating yourself to turn your vision of this future into reality.
The process of setting goals helps you choose where you want to go in life. By knowing precisely what you want to achieve, you know where you have to concentrate your efforts. You'll also quickly spot the distractions that can, so easily, lead you astray.

Improve Your Concentration - Achieving Focus Amid Distractions


How many times have you sat at your desk and tried to focus on a task, only to find that your mind is wandering? Despite your best intentions, you just can't concentrate. We've all been in this familiar, frustrating situation, and it's something that can really undermine your performance.
In this article, we'll review strategies to improve your concentration and reduce your daily distractions.

Eisenhower's Urgent/Important Principle - Using Time Effectively, Not Just Efficiently

© iStockphoto
blackred
Imagine that your boss has asked you to prepare an important presentation for the next board meeting.
You only have a few days to put it together, your workload is already high, and you have many other urgent tasks on your To-Do List. Because of this, you're anxious, you can't concentrate, and everything seems to distract you. 
Time stressors are some of the most pervasive sources of pressure in the workplace, and they happen as a result of having too much to do, in too little time. So, how can you beat this stress, and deliver the things that are essential to doing a good job?
Eisenhower's Urgent/Important Principle helps you think about your priorities, and determine which of your activities are important and which are, essentially, distractions.

Prioritization - Making Best Use of Your Time and Resources


Prioritization is the essential skill that you need to make the very best use of your own efforts and those of your team. It's also a skill that you need to create calmness and space in your life so that you can focus your energy and attention on the things that really matter.
It's particularly important when time is limited and demands are seemingly unlimited. It helps you to allocate your time where it's most-needed and most wisely spent, freeing you and your team up from less important tasks that can be attended to later... or quietly dropped.
With good prioritization (and careful management of reprioritized tasks) you can bring order to chaos, massively reduce stress, and move towards a successful conclusion. Without it, you'll flounder around, drowning in competing demands.

Leverage - Achieving Much More with the Same Effort

© iStockphoto
Nikonbuff
To lift a heavy object, you have a choice: use leverage or not. You can try to lift the object directly – risking injury – or you can use a lever, such as a jack or a long plank of wood, to transfer some of the weight, and then lift the object that way.
Which approach is wiser? Will you succeed without using leverage? Maybe. But you can lift so much more with leverage, and do it so much more easily!
So what has this got to do with your life and career? The answer is "a lot". By applying the concept of leverage to business and career success, you can, with a little thought, accomplish very much more than you can without it. Without leverage, you may work very hard, but your rewards are limited by the hours you put in. With leverage, you can break this connection and, in time, achieve very much more.

The PERMA Model - Bringing Well-Being and Happiness to Your Life

© Veer
EpicStockMedia
We all want to be happy. When we're happy, we're productive, we're good at building meaningful relationships with those around us, and... we feel great!
However, happiness is a notoriously difficult thing to pin down, and by focusing on it too intensely, we can end up feeling unfulfilled.

In this article we'll look at the PERMA Model. This helps us think about what we need to do to flourish – and be really happy as a result!

Physical Relaxation Techniques - Deep Breathing, PMR, and Centering


© iStockphoto
hadynyah
Imagine that you're having a particularly stressful day, and everything seems to be going wrong.
You have a number of important deadlines due, several members of your team have called in sick, and you've just found out that you have to make a presentation to the board – tomorrow.
When you have to deal with situations like these, your heart may race, your breathing may become fast and shallow, and you could even feel that you can't cope with the task at hand. These feelings are the result of your body going through sudden changes as it prepares to deal with a perceived threat – this is the famous "fight-or-flight" response.

Building Self-Confidence - Preparing Yourself for Success!


From the quietly confident doctor whose advice we rely on, to the charismatic confidence of an inspiring speaker, self-confident people have qualities that everyone admires.
Self-confidence is extremely important in almost every aspect of our lives, yet so many people struggle to find it. Sadly, this can be a vicious circle: people who lack self-confidence can find it difficult to become successful.
After all, most people are reluctant to back a project that's being pitched by someone who was nervous, fumbling, and overly apologetic.
On the other hand, you might be persuaded by someone who speaks clearly, who holds his or her head high, who answers questions assuredly, and who readily admits when he or she does not know something.
Confident people inspire confidence in others: their audience, their peers, their bosses, their customers, and their friends. And gaining the confidence of others is one of the key ways in which a self-confident person finds success.
The good news is that self-confidence really can be learned and built on. And, whether you’re working on your own confidence or building the confidence of people around you, it’s well-worth the effort!

Centering - Maintaining Focus in Stressful Situations

© iStockphoto
icefront
Imagine that you're about to give the most important speech of your life. The audience is packed with people you want to impress. How do you feel?
According to a 2012 survey by Karen Dwyer and Marlina Davidson, public speaking is our number one fear. If, like many people, the prospect of speaking in front of an audience is your worst nightmare, you'd probably be terrified.
There are all sorts of occasions in life when our nerves can get the better of us. Feelings of anxiety – a rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, sweating, and light-headedness – are normal in these situations.
Fortunately, with a little practice, you can turn this nervous energy into positive concentration using a technique called "Centering."

Imagery - Mental Stress Management

© iStockphoto
yulkapopkova
Imagine that you are soon going to give a presentation to your organization's executive team, and you just can't seem to focus.
You're nervous and stressed, and when you try to rehearse your opening lines, your mind goes completely blank. The more you try to practice your material, the more stressed you feel!
So, you take a break, you close your eyes, and you remember the last vacation that you took in the mountains. You think of the gentle stream where you stopped to rest. You can hear the birdsong, smell the clean air, and feel the sun's warmth on your skin. You slowly begin to relax as you imagine this peaceful scene, and your heart rate and breathing slow down. When you open your eyes a few minutes later, you feel relaxed and in control, and you have no trouble remembering your opening lines.

Job Analysis - Zeroing In on What Your Job's About


© iStockphoto
MoreISO
We have all experienced that appalling sense of having far too much work to do and too little time to do it in. We can choose to ignore this, and work unreasonably long hours to stay on top of our workload. The alternative is to work more intelligently, by focusing on the things that are important for job success and reducing the time we spend on low priority tasks.
Job Analysis is the first step in doing this, and it's a key technique for managing job overload – an important source of stress. To do an excellent job, you need to understand fully what is expected of you. While this may seem obvious, in the hurly-burly of a new, fast-moving, high-pressure role, it is oftentimes something that is easy to overlook.

Albrecht's Four Types of Stress - Managing Common Pressures

© iStockphoto
fotoVoyager
Imagine that you work in human resources, and that you've recently been dealing with a lot of people problems.
It's been another long day. You're now meeting with your last "client" before you go home. As you listen to this person's story, you start to get tense. You find yourself avoiding making direct eye contact with her, and you feel yourself shutting down emotionally. You don't want to listen to her complaints at all; instead, you just want to finish.

Speed Reading - Learning to Read More Efficiently


Think about how much reading you do every day.
Perhaps you read the newspaper to catch up with what's going on in the world. You browse countless emails from colleagues. And you then read the books, reports, proposals, periodicals, and letters that make up an average day.
When you look at it, reading could be the work-related skill that you use most often! It's also a skill that most of us take for granted by the time we reach the age of 12. After all, it seems that if we can read and comprehend textbooks, then, surely, we must be good readers?
Maybe not. And, given the time that reading consumes in our daily lives, it may be a skill that we can, and should, improve.

The Conscious Competence Ladder - Keeping Going When Learning Gets Tough Also called the "Conscious Competence Matrix," the "Learning Matrix," and the "Four Stages of Learning."

© Veer
naumoid
When we learn new skills, we experience different emotions at different stages of the learning process.
For instance, at the beginning, we may not appreciate how much we need to learn. Then, when we discover what we don't know about a subject, we may get disheartened, and we might even give up.
This is why it helps to understand the emotions that you're likely to experience at each stage of the learning process, so that you can manage the emotional ups and downs that go along with learning a new skill.
The Conscious Competence Ladder helps you do this. In this article, we'll look at this model, and we'll highlight how you can use it to learn new skills more effectively.

Learning Styles - Understanding Learning Preferences


Have you ever tried to learn something fairly simple, yet failed to grasp the key ideas? Or tried to teach people and found that some were overwhelmed or confused by something quite basic?
If so, you may have experienced a clash of learning styles: your learning preferences and those of your instructor or audience may not have been aligned. When this occurs, not only is it frustrating for everyone, the communication process breaks down and learning fails.
Once you know your own natural learning preference, you can work on expanding the way you learn, so that you can learn in other ways, not just in your preferred style.
And, by understanding learning styles, you can learn to create an environment in which everyone can learn from you, not just those who use your preferred style.

Mind Maps® - A Powerful Approach to Note-Taking (Also known as Mind Mapping, Concept Mapping, Spray Diagrams, and Spider Diagrams)


Have you ever studied a subject or brainstormed an idea, only to find yourself with pages of information, but no clear view of how it fits together?
This is where Mind Mapping can help you.
Mind Mapping is a useful technique that helps you learn more effectively, improves the way that you record information, and supports and enhances creative problem solving.
By using Mind Maps, you can quickly identify and understand the structure of a subject. You can see the way that pieces of information fit together, as well as recording the raw facts contained in normal notes.

Reading Strategies - Reading Efficiently by Reading Intelligently


Whether they're project documents, trade journals, blogs, business books or ebooks, most of us read regularly as part of our jobs, and to develop our skills and knowledge.
But do you ever read what should be a useful document, yet fail to gain any helpful information from it? Or, do you have to re-read something several times to get a full understanding of the content?
In this article, we're looking at strategies that will help you read more effectively. These approaches will help you get the maximum benefit from your reading, with the minimum effort.

Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions - Understanding Different Countries

© iStockphoto
takasuu
Imagine this scenario: Sayid's boss has asked him to manage a large, global team. In this new role, he'll be working closely with people in several different countries. He's excited about the opportunities that his connectedness will present, but he's also nervous about making cross-cultural faux pas.
He knows that cultural differences can act as a barrier to communication, and that they could affect his ability to build connections and motivate people. So, how can he begin to understand these differences and work effectively with people from different cultures?
In this article, we'll explore how you can use Hofstede's Six Dimensions of Culture to work effectively with people from a range of cultural and geographic backgrounds.

Dealing With Office Politics - Navigating the Minefield

© iStockphoto
LaurenJane
"There's too much wrangling and maneuvering going on – I just hate this office politicking". "Joe, well he's a smart political mover – knows exactly how to get what he wants and how to get on." Whether you hate it, admire it, practice it or avoid it, office politics is a fact of life in any organization. And, like it or not, it's something that you need to understand and master to be sure of your own success.

From Technical Expert to Manager Learning Management Skills

© iStockphoto
richcarey
So, you finally earned the promotion you dreamed about. Because of your technical expertise and your ability to reach performance goals consistently, your organization made you a manager.
You're thrilled with the idea of advancing your career... until reality hits you. After a few weeks, you start to realize that you're spending very little time doing what you used to do best – that is, using your technical skills. Instead, you're spending a lot of your time dealing with "people problems," navigating office politics, and coordinating projects and team members.

Future Proof Your Career - Developing Skills For Your Future As Well As For Today

© iStockphoto

How will your job be different five years from now? Will your job even exist in its present form in five years? In 10 or even 20 years? And over this time, what will happen to the company and industry you work for?
We really don't know what the future holds. What we do know for certain is that change is a constant in the workplace. This means that what we are doing now will be different in the future.
How can you predict and prepare for this workplace of the future? What should you be doing now to make sure you don't find yourself facing a dead end in your career, with no opportunity to change direction without crashing?

Getting Noticed - Staying "Visible" at Work

© iStockphoto
JanPietruszka
Do you sometimes feel that your hard work is "invisible"?
Perhaps you do such good work on a regular basis that your manager takes you for granted. Perhaps, because of this, you're no longer recognized and rewarded for your efforts, as you once were.
In this article, we'll discuss strategies for getting noticed for the great work that you do. This, in turn, will help you to continue moving towards your career goals.

Developing Charisma - Increasing Your Influence in the Workplace

© Veer
Ryanking999
 Have you ever worked with a very charismatic leader? If so, then it's likely that almost everyone in the organization liked, trusted and admired this person.
People listened when she talked, colleagues supported her ideas, and talented people wanted to join her team. In short, everyone wanted to be around this person!
Charisma is something that many people believe you're born with. However, this isn't the case – you can become more charismatic, and we'll explore how you can develop charisma in this article

Emotional Intelligence - Developing Strong "People Skills"


We probably all know people, either at work or in our personal lives, who are really good listeners. No matter what kind of situation we're in, they always seem to know just what to say – and how to say it – so that we're not offended or upset. They're caring and considerate, and even if we don't find a solution to our problem, we usually leave feeling more hopeful and optimistic.
We probably also know people who are masters at managing their emotions. They don't get angry in stressful situations. Instead, they have the ability to look at a problem and calmly find a solution. They're excellent decision makers, and they know when to trust their intuition. Regardless of their strengths, however, they're usually willing to look at themselves honestly. They take criticism well, and they know when to use it to improve their performance.

Job Crafting - Shaping Your Job to Fit You Better

© iStockphoto
alexxx1981
Have you ever noticed something like this going on at work?
It's now about six months since the arrival of a new Program Office Administrator, and the focus of the job has changed subtly. The previous post-holder, Rebecca, did a great job, using her competence in finance to develop new procedures for checking the monthly financial reports for all of the projects in the program.
Her successor, Stephen, however, has a particular flair for graphic design. He's now enhancing the different progress reports to make key information stand out more effectively. Overall, though, they've both been really good performers, making a big contribution to the efficiency and organization of the team.

The Big Five Personality Traits Model - Comparing Personalities with Roles

© iStockphoto
plrang
Have you ever worked in a job that just didn't fit with your personality? Or have you recruited people in the past who weren't successful in their roles, even though they had the skills required?
Many of us have taken jobs that weren't a good fit. For instance, picture a quiet, thoughtful and shy person stepping into a high-pressure sales position, where they have to make lots of telephone calls. Or someone who is extremely ordered and detailed, taking a job at a start-up software firm, where everyone has broad roles, and all are encouraged to be flexible in how they approach tasks.

27 Des 2016

The Johari Window - Using Self-Discovery and Communication to Build Trust


 Have you ever been part of a team where everyone was completely open with one another?
If so, then the chances are that you worked extremely effectively together. You knew your co-workers very well, and there was a solid foundation of trust between you. As a result of this positive working environment, you probably accomplished a great deal with this group.

Bell and Hart's Eight Causes of Conflict - Understanding the Causes of Workplace Tension

© iStockphoto
rmarnold
You've just arrived at your office, which you share with a colleague, and it looks as if it's going to be another frustrating day.
Your side of the office is neat as a pin and incredibly well organized. You always arrive at work on time and you take care not to talk loudly when you're on the phone, so that you don't disturb your office mate. Your colleague, however, is the exact opposite.

Crafting an Elevator Pitch - Introducing Your Company Quickly and Compellingly (Also known as an Elevator Speech or Elevator Statement)

© iStockphoto
pkfawcett
You've just bumped into a former client at the airport. After exchanging pleasantries, he asks you what your new company does. You open your mouth, and then pause. Where on earth do you start?
Then, as you try to organize your thoughts, his flight is called, and he's on his way. If you'd been better prepared, you're sure that he'd have stayed long enough to schedule a meeting.
This is one situation where it helps to have an "elevator pitch." This is a short, pre-prepared speech that explains what your organization does, clearly and succinctly.
In this article, we'll explore situations where these are useful, and we'll look at how to craft an effective pitch.

The Situation – Behavior – Impact Feedback Tool - Providing Clear, Specific Feedback

© iStockphoto
sankai
Imagine that you recently gave some feedback to a member of your team. You told him that his meeting agendas looked great, but he needed to improve his presentation skills.
You follow up a few weeks later to find out why he hasn't made any changes. You discover that he didn't understand what he could do to improve – your feedback simply prompted more questions. He was left thinking "What's good about my agendas that I can transfer to other documents?" and "What's wrong with my presentation skills?"

Giving Feedback - Keeping Team Member Performance High, and Well-Integrated


"Performance review." Does the mere mention of this event make your heart sink?
Employees and managers the world over dread this ritual and therein lays the main problem: We have institutionalized the giving and receiving of feedback. We save up our comments and document all the things we note about a person's performance. And then, like a big cat ready to pounce, the manager brings a hapless employee into the office and springs a year's worth of "constructive criticism" onto him or her.

Thinking on Your Feet - Staying Cool and Confident Under Pressure


© iStockphoto
AlexSava
"So, Susan, your report indicates you support forging ahead with the expansion, but have you considered the impact this will have on our customers? Surely you remember the fiasco in Dallas last year when they tried the same type of project?"
Yikes! If you're Susan, you're likely feeling under pressure! You have to answer the question and allay the CEO's concerns about the disruption to customers. What do you do? What do you say? How do you say it? What if you can't think of anything to say?

Active Listening - Hear What People are Really Saying


Listening is one of the most important skills you can have. How well you listen has a major impact on your job effectiveness, and on the quality of your relationships with others.
For instance:
  • We listen to obtain information.
  • We listen to understand.
  • We listen for enjoyment.
  • We listen to learn.

Assertiveness - Working WITH People, Not Against Them


 Do you consider yourself to be assertive? And what does being assertive mean to you? Does it mean exercising your rights all the time, every time? Or does it mean knowing when to let someone else or some other cause or outcome take precedence over your rights?

Body Language - Understanding Non-Verbal Communication


Have you ever been in the situation when you really didn't believe what someone was saying? Did you have a sense that something didn't ring true or a gut feeling that all was not right? Perhaps they were saying "Yes" yet their heads were shaking "No"?

Making a Great First Impression - Getting off to a Good Start


 It takes just a quick glance, maybe three seconds, for someone to evaluate you when you meet for the first time. In this short time, the other person forms an opinion about you based on your appearance, your body language, your demeanor, your mannerisms, and how you are dressed.

Creating a Value Proposition - Communicating the Benefits of Your Product, Service or Idea, Simply and Clearly

© iStockphoto
Rike_
Imagine a world where everyone is in sales. 
Well, in actual fact, everyone is to some extent – not just the salesman at the car lot. Whether you're trying to sell your holiday ideas to your spouse, or you're pitching a new project to your boss, it's all selling, and, whatever your offer (product, idea, project or job), it's important to have a really strong value proposition.
A value proposition is a short statement that clearly communicates the benefits that your potential client gets by using your product, service or idea. It "boils down" all the complexity of your sales pitch into something that your client can easily grasp and remember.

Peluncuran Buku Zulkifli Zaini "Execution Matters!: Rencana Tidak Mengubah Apa-Apa"

Kami menghadiri peluncuran buku "Execution Matters!: Rencana Tidak Mengubah Apa-Apa" karya Zulkifli Zaini di Plaza Mandiri, Jakarta. (5 Desember 2016)

Bersama Pak Effendi Ibnoe, dan Pak Zulkifli Zaini

Paparan Publik PT. Intraco Penta, Tbk

Acara Paparan Publik PT. Intraco Penta, Tbk di Hotel Intercontinental Jakarta, 7 Desember 2016



23 Des 2016

Kick Off Meeting PT Intraco Penta, Tbk

Menghadiri acara Kick off Meeting Business Plan 2017 PT Intraco Penta, Tbk di Head Office Intraco Penta, Cakung Cilincing Jakarta. (6 Desember 2016)

Bersama jajaran Dewan Komisaris dan Direksi, Pak Halex Halim, Pak Tonny Surya Kusnadi, Bu Leny Halim, dan Pak Effendi Ibnoe

Amabile and Kramer's Progress Theory - Using Small Wins to Enhance Motivation

© Veer
magicinfoto
There are many ways that you can motivate and inspire your team.
For instance, you can provide a positive, exciting workplace, with plenty of opportunities to build strong relationships. You can use incentives, such as bonuses or other rewards, to keep your team focused. And you can provide great support, and publicly recognize people's hard work.

Management by Wandering Around (MBWA) - Keeping Your Finger on the Pulse

© GettyImages
MichaelWarren
 You're likely based in the same building as your manager, but how often do you see him or her? OK, so you see him any time you look through the spotless glass walls of his office, but how often do you get the chance to sit down together and really talk? Once a week? Once a month? Less, maybe.

The Three Component Model of Commitment - Improving Commitment and Engagement

© iStockphoto
Massonstock
 Have you ever thought about why people might become emotionally committed to your organization?
Some people are committed to their jobs because they love what they do, or because their goals align with those of the company. Others might stay because they fear what they could lose if they leave. Still others might stay because they feel obligated to the company, or to their manager.

Successful Delegation - Using the Power of Other People's Help

© iStockphoto
AlexRaths

How to Delegate

Start by specifying the outcome you desire to the people you trust to deliver it. Establish controls, identify limits to the work and provide sufficient support, but resist upward delegation. Keep up to date with progress, and focus on results rather than procedures. Finally, when the work is completed, give recognition where it’s deserved.

Dealing With Sloppy Work - Overcoming Careless Habits in Your Team

© iStockphoto
mcerovac
 When you think of "sloppy work," you might imagine tasks performed in a careless or lazy way, documents that are full of mistakes, or actions that show no regard for team goals and objectives.
"Sloppy work" can also apply to conversations and work relationships. For example, people can demonstrate a lack of attentiveness when they make careless comments to clients.

Avoiding Micromanagement - Helping Team Members Excel – On Their Own


You've assigned an important task to a talented employee, and given him a deadline. Now, do you let him do his work and simply touch base with him at pre-defined points along the way – or do you keep dropping by his desk and sending e-mails to check his progress?

The Three Component Model of Commitment - Improving Commitment and Engagement

© iStockphoto
Massonstock
 Have you ever thought about why people might become emotionally committed to your organization?
Some people are committed to their jobs because they love what they do, or because their goals align with those of the company. Others might stay because they fear what they could lose if they leave. Still others might stay because they feel obligated to the company, or to their manager.
Clearly, some of these types of commitment can have a negative effect on a person's well-being, self-respect, and job satisfaction. So, how can you avoid this, but still help team members feel committed to your team, or organization, in a positive way?
In this article we'll explore three common types of commitment, and we'll look at how you can make changes to improve team member engagement and loyalty in an effective and positive way.

About the Model

John Meyer and Natalie Allen developed their Three Component Model of Commitment and published it in the 1991 "Human Resource Management Review." The model explains that commitment to an organization is a psychological state, and that it has three distinct components that affect how employees feel about the organization that they work for.
The three components are:
  1. Affection for your job ("affective commitment").
  2. Fear of loss ("continuance commitment").
  3. Sense of obligation to stay ("normative commitment").
You can use this model to increase commitment and engagement in your team, while also helping people to experience a greater feeling of well-being and job satisfaction.
Let's look at each of Meyer and Allen's three types of commitment in greater detail.

Affection for Your Job (Affective Commitment)

Affection for your job occurs when you feel a strong emotional attachment to your organization, and to the work that you do. You'll most likely identify with the organization's goals and values, and you genuinely want to be there.
If you're enjoying your work, you're likely to feel good, and be satisfied with your job. In turn, this increased job satisfaction is likely to add to your feeling of affective commitment.

Fear of Loss (Continuance Commitment)

This type of commitment occurs when you weigh up the pros and cons of leaving your organization. You may feel that you need to stay at your company, because the loss you'd experience by leaving it is greater than the benefit you think you might gain in a new role.
These perceived losses, or "side bets," can be monetary (you'd lose salary and benefits); professional (you might lose seniority or role-related skills that you've spent years acquiring); or social (you'd lose friendships or allies).
The severity of these "losses" often increases with age and experience. You're more likely to experience continuance commitment if you're in an established, successful role, or if you've had several promotions within one organization.

Sense of Obligation to Stay (Normative Commitment)

This type of commitment occurs when you feel a sense of obligation to your organization, even if you're unhappy in your role, or even if you want to pursue better opportunities. You feel that you should stay with your organization, because it's the right thing to do.

This sense of obligation can stem from several factors. You might feel that you should remain with your organization because it has invested money or time in your training. Or perhaps it provided a reward in advance, such as paying for your college tuition.
This obligation can also result from your upbringing. For instance, your family might have stressed that you should stay loyal to your organization.

Note:

These three types of commitment are not mutually exclusive. You can experience all three, or two of the three, in varying degrees.

Applying the Model

By applying the Three Component Model, you can help your team develop greater positive, affective commitment. By doing this, your people are likely to feel an increased commitment to the team and organization, and they'll probably feel more positive and more motivated; and experience greater job satisfaction.
It's important to do your best to grow affective commitment, and reduce your team's reliance on continuance and normative commitment, so that you're leading a team of people who feel passionate for their roles.
Team members with only continuance and normative commitment may feel bored and unmotivated, and no leader wants a team with those attitudes! These team members might also block enthusiastic employees, or even lower the morale of the group.
To encourage positive changes, make sure that you're linking people's goals with those of the team or organization, using an approach like Management by Objectives. If appropriate, see whether you can better align your team's roles with their skills and interests, with techniques such as Job Crafting. It's important to help people find purpose in their work.
Remember that people are more likely to develop affective commitment if they experience positive emotions at work. Doing what you can to help people flourish is a great way to encourage people to thrive, and to enjoy the work that they're doing. Make sure that you give praise regularly, and create a healthy workplace , so that people are happy and productive.

Managing Continuance and Normative Commitment

In addition to helping people experience greater affective commitment, you can also use the model to carefully manage the amount of continuance and normative commitment that people may feel.
You can reduce the dependency on continuance and normative commitments by being a better leader, by working on your general team management skills, and by thinking carefully about how your actions might influence your team members.
Clearly, it doesn't make sense to try to reduce continuance or normative commitment, however you should try not to rely on it, even if you're unable to achieve affective commitment at first. You should work on ways to ensure that team members become happy and enjoy their work, without making them feel uncomfortable during the process.
Bear in mind, however, that people will likely experience continuance commitment at some point in their careers, because they'll feel that they need to stay in their job to receive pay and benefits. And some people will likely feel a sense of normative commitment if their organization has invested a lot in their training and development, for example. It's nice to have these types of commitment, however, they're a bonus, not something you should seek to create!

Key Points

John Meyer and Natalie Allen developed the Three Component Model of Commitment, and published it in the 1991 "Human Resource Management Review." The model defines the three types of commitment as follows:
  1. Affection for your job (affective commitment).
  2. Fear of loss (continuance commitment).
  3. Sense of obligation to stay (normative commitment).
You can use the model to help your people experience greater affective commitment, while making sure that you don't misuse continuance and normative commitment to keep people tied to your team or organization. Your team will function best, and thrive, if you use your energy to grow affective commitment.

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French and Raven's Five Forms of Power
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